Stonehenge and its surrounding landscape have seen an unprecedented amount of research in the last decade. One of the most significant strands of this has been Historic England’s survey of the stones, the surrounding earthworks and the hidden archaeology.
This research has involved a combination of non-intrusive techniques – analytical survey of upstanding monuments and buildings, aerial photography, lidar and geophysical survey, and, laser scanning. At the same time several universities have been carrying out independent research, involving international co-operation. All this has allowed us to develop a new appreciation of the Stonehenge landscape, not only in its Neolithic and Bronze Age heyday but from early prehistory to the present day.
Here are seven surprising new discoveries:
1. ‘North Barrow’ possibly oldest element of Stonehenge
One of the most significant findings concerns the so-called ‘North Barrow’. All visitors to Stonehenge walk over the fragmentary remains of this earthwork, most probably without noticing it, as they enter the site. Archaeologists, too, have been inclined to ignore it, regarding it as a relatively insignificant feature. But Historic England’s archaeologists, closely observing the undulations of the ground surface, have revealed that this slight feature – a circular bank enclosing an area about 20m across – is possibly the oldest element of Stonehenge. It pre-dates the great earthwork enclosure of around 3,000BC, which runs over the top of it, and is older than the stone settings by at least 500 years.
2. Geophysical survey reveals many ‘henges’
In the surrounding landscape, researchers from universities and Historic England have revealed that the ‘North Barrow’ was not alone. Using the latest geophysical techniques, they have discovered that there may have been as many as a dozen small circular or oval enclosures surrounded by ditches and external earthen banks. Many of them incorporate circles of upright posts. Archaeologists refer to these enclosures as ‘henges’ (named after Stonehenge itself).
Though the purpose of these sites is clearly religious, the exact ceremonies that were practised there are unknown. The ‘henges’ range in size from a few metres across to the enormous Durrington Walls – three kilometres north-east of Stonehenge, it is nearly 500m across.
3. Parchmarks reveal holes of missing stones
One of the great controversies of Stonehenge is whether the sarsen circle was ever complete. This remains unresolved but a chance discovery in 2013 added significantly to the debate. Serendipity is a great aid to archaeological discovery and in this case it was a short hosepipe that led to the breakthrough. The hosepipe used to water the turf at Stonehenge in hot spells did not reach one part of the circle and brown patches started to appear in the grass. Site staff realised that these could be significant parchmarks and called in the archaeologists. The marks proved to be caused by holes for missing stones in the circle – holes that have never been discovered by any deliberate archaeological activity.
4. New discoveries of carvings on stones
In 1953 Professor Richard Atkinson first noticed carvings of an Early Bronze Age dagger and axe head on one of the upright sarsen stones at Stonehenge. Interestingly, in retrospect these carvings can be seen on early photographs of the monument but no one had recognised them. Over the years more carvings have been found and by 2005 three daggers and 44 axe heads had been discovered.
From their distinctive shapes these carvings represent axes and daggers that were in use around 1750-1500BC. The carvings were therefore made when the stones had already been standing for nearly 1,000 years. As part of the research project Historic England commissioned a high resolution laser scan of the stones, which revealed a further 71 axe heads and one possible new dagger. This doubles the number of Early Bronze Age axe head carvings known about in the whole of Britain.
5. Significant Roman activity at Stonehenge
There has been activity at Stonehenge at every period since it was built except for the late Iron Age –the very time when druids were active. For a period of over 100 years, from about 100BC to the Roman invasion of AD43, nobody left any evidence of their presence at Stonehenge or in its immediate surroundings. Of course, this does not prove that they were not there but the contrast with all other periods, when plenty of ‘stuff’ was left at and around the site, is striking.
For a long time it has been recognised that the 20th-century excavations at Stonehenge found more Roman than prehistoric artefacts, but this rather inconvenient fact has been largely ignored. New excavation by Tim Darvill and Geoff Wainwright in 2009 revealed unavoidable evidence for significant Roman activity at the site. In the 360s AD, Stonehenge – in common with many other prehistoric monuments in Britain – became a focus for religious rites. Pits, and perhaps graves, were dug into the site and visitors deposited coins and other valuable items.
6. A place of execution?
In the 1920s a skeleton dating from the Anglo-Saxon period was found in a shallow grave just outside the stone circle. It was taken to London for study and was thought to have been lost in the blitz but in the 1980s it was rediscovered at the Royal College of Surgeons by archaeologist Mike Pitts. Specialists now realised that it was the skeleton of a young man who had been decapitated with a sharp metal blade, probably a sword, by a single right-handed blow to the back of the neck. Radiocarbon dating shows that this event happened between about AD 660 and 890 – between the time of the Synod of Whitby and the reign of Alfred the Great, when England was a firmly Christian country.
7. Early 20th century Alterations
During the First World War the down to the west of Stonehenge became an aerodrome and hangars were built within 500m of the monument. The furore over the future of the aerodrome and its buildings after the war fuelled a wider debate that was already raging about the preservation of Stonehenge and its setting. New research by Historic England has revealed the tortuous course of this controversy.
The first ‘restoration’ at Stonehenge – the straightening of Stone 56 – took place in 1901. Further restoration and extensive excavation took place in the 1920s and 1950s. This was always contentious but, driven by the Ministry of Works and the Society of Antiquaries, the process had irresistible force. As a result Stonehenge was subjected to more alterations during the 20th century than at any point since the Bronze Age.
While it is not true – as some have claimed – that Stonehenge is effectively a 20th-century creation, the monument and its surroundings are not frozen in time. Their continually changing appearance is tied to changing ideas on aesthetics, historical authenticity and, inevitably, visitor management.
The Stonehenge Landscape by Mark Bowden, Sharon Soutar and Martyn Barber is a new book published by Historic England.
And I always thought it was a service bay for flying saucers… OK bad joke, but looking at this henge in isolation I think negates the importance of the whole area and all the monuments from Wood Henge to Avebury the landscape appears littered with interesting archaeology.
More English than Big Ben, it is unacceptable that the British Government do not spend big to relentlessly work at establishing the scope and meaning of this world icon.
I am filled with ghosts each time I visit my Stonehenge and my heritage.
The straightening of the stones,or main stone in 1901 was akin in stupidity
to the UK councils health & safety topple test in the nations grave yards.
i noticed that they don’t seem to do it any more do they?
I have created my bucket list.
Number 1 is totally unachievable, but is simply to meet the folk who decided that it would be a good idea to build something here, I would ask WHY, why here (based on their knowledge at the time) and who paid for it?
All current answers and available information is speculative.
I want the truth which is ONLY available from those there at the time.
And yes, in case you are wondering I do have other things on my list, VERY achievable.
I don’t think this was a case of who paid for it,in those times the shamans and holy men controlled everything and if they wanted something done it would be,they certainly had the man/woman power to do it and all the resources at their disposal,all they needed was the human power to achieve it and they had plenty of that I think.
The other great holders of power were the kings and they needed man power for their armies but they mostly listened to their religious departments because at that time not only were they more superstitious but there was more belief in the gods than there is now.
Yes, maybe. I simply do not believe that a project as complicated as Stonehenge could just be conjured out of thin air. It must have been thought about, discussed and agreed. As I said in my first posting, current answers are speculative. Who WAS the king of England at that time? What land area did he control? And IF (a BIG IF) he was responsible where did the finance come from to feed and house the workforce?
More unanswerable questions ………..
Tom,I guess the same could be said for the even bigger logistics that the Egyptians faced
in the Pyramid building time.Unlike now with the massive range of job choices available to us,in those times you either became a;
cloth maker,doctor,monk/nun,alchemist or lamplighter.
Peter, we know much more about Egyptian times than we do about our own at this time- and we’re still learning! Please don’t forget that they had dynasty after dynasty of organisation supplying all sorts of solutions, and we know WHO ordered the constructions.
Peter, we know much more about Egyptian times than we do about our own at this time- and we’re still learning! solutions, and we know WHO ordered the constructions.
Reblogged this on Stonehenge News and Information.
There is virtually never any reference to the work carried out later in the 20th century involving concrete foundations to some of the stones put in place by the MPBW.
I totally agree John and lets face it using some of the hydraulic limes,the NHL3.5 or worse case scenario,the NHL 5.0,they might have well used a cement.Perhaps the wise architects actually instructed the use of a Roman cement but i somehow doubt it,nowadays people only go for what is cheap and convenient don’t they and any old cement will do.
Good to have more accurate recording of the stones and their context (any speculation is always stimulating & useful), helping us to understand this remarkable site.
Reblogged this on NoelG.net and commented:
The latest research into one of my favourite piles of stones.