Exterior of Quaker Meeting House, Come-to-Good © Historic England Archive DP160685
Architecture

An Introduction to Quaker Meeting Houses

Quakers worship in buildings called 'meeting houses', designed in simple, domestic styles.

Quakers, also known as the Religious Society of Friends, are a Christian group originating in 17th century England

They often worship in buildings called ‘meeting houses’, designed in simple, domestic styles unlike more elaborate church architecture.

The ‘Friends Meeting House’ at Come-to-Good, Nr Kea, Cornwall. © Historic England Archive DP160686.

Who are the Quakers and what do they believe?

Quakers have their origins in the religious and political turmoil of the 17th century English Civil War.

Re-enactors as civil war solders. © Historic England Archive DP114840.

In the mid-17th century, the English Dissenter, George Fox, turned his back on the established church. Fox claimed that because each individual can have a direct relationship with God, there is no need for priests or traditional churches.

A portrait of George Fox, 1624-1690. Image via Wikimedia Commons
A portrait of George Fox, 1624-1690. Image via Wikimedia Commons.

Fox founded the Religious Society of Friends who met for worship in all kinds of venues, including barns, orchards, hilltops and even each other’s homes.

'A Quakers' Meeting' by artist Egbert van Heemskerk, painted in the second half of the 17th century. Image via Wikimedia Commons
‘A Quakers’ Meeting’ by Egbert van Heemskerk, painted in the second half of the 17th century. Image via Wikimedia Commons.

Quaker worship was forbidden by law until the 1689 Act of Toleration but the gradual acceptance of different faiths in the later 17th-century enabled Quakers, and other so-called nonconformists, to build their own places of worship.

Quaker Meeting Houses

The following are ten fascinating Quaker meeting houses and the stories behind them.

1. Brigflatts Quaker meeting house, Sedburgh

The earliest Quaker meeting houses were distinctive for their simple, functional design, often built by local craftsmen.

Exterior of Briggflatts Quaker Meeting House, Sedburgh, Cumbria © Historic England Archive DP143728
Briggflatts Quaker Meeting House in Sedburgh, Cumbria. © Historic England Archive DP143728.

Brigflatts, on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales, is the earliest purpose-built meeting house in the north of England, completed in 1675.

Its construction is typical of late-17th century buildings and it still has many of its historic features, including a minister’s stand, fixed benches, a wide staircase and an Elders bench.

Interior of Brigflatts Quaker Meeting House, Sedburgh, Cumbria © Historic England Archive DP143728
The interior of Brigflatts Quaker Meeting House in Sedburgh, Cumbria. © Historic England Archive DP143728.

The surrounding burial ground has been in continuous use since 1656 and is the resting place of modernist poet Basil Bunting.

2. Quaker meeting house, Rawdon

Near Leeds, Rawdon meeting house has been in continuous use since its construction in 1697.

Exterior of Quaker Meeting House, Quakers Lane, Rawdon, Leeds, West Yorkshire. Image via Wikimedia Commons
Quaker Meeting House, Quakers Lane, Rawdon, Leeds, West Yorkshire. Photo via Wikimedia Commons.

In fact, the meeting of Quakers in this area goes back even further, beginning with ‘the Guiseley meeting’ in 1655. The name change might reflect the move from using local Quaker’s houses as places to meet, to the acquisition of a new site from Francis Rawdon of Rawdon Hall.

Although the building was extended in 1729 and altered in the early 19th-century, it retains many of its original fittings including sliding vertical partitions, joinery, hat and cloak pegs and Tobin ventilation tubes.

3. Quaker meeting house, Come-to-Good

Constructed in 1710, Come-to-Good meeting house in Cornwall is one of the best-known meeting houses in England.

Exterior of Quaker Meeting House, Come-to-Good © Historic England Archive DP160685
Quaker Meeting House, Come-to-Good, Cornwall. © Historic England Archive DP160685.

It reportedly cost £53, 8s 3d to build, with the first recorded meeting held while it was still roofless.

In the early 18th-century, a gallery was added to provide more seating as well as a space for the women’s business meeting. Surviving accounts suggest that it was supported by 2 halves of a 40ft ship’s mast.

Interior of Quaker Meeting House, Come to Good, Cornwall © Historic England Archive DP160691
The interior of the Quaker Meeting House in Come to Good, Cornwall. © Historic England Archive DP160691.

As with many meeting houses, Come-to-Good went out of use and back in again over a long period of time. It re-opened fully in 1946 and modern conveniences such as electricity and running water were added in the 1960s. It has been used by Quakers ever since.

4. Quaker meeting house, Hertford

The Friends meeting house at Hertford is the earliest surviving purpose-built meeting house in the world, still in Quaker use.

Exterior of Quaker Meeting House, Railway Street, Hertford, Hertfordshire © Historic England Archive DP160136
Quaker Meeting House, Railway Street, Hertford, Hertfordshire. © Historic England Archive DP160136.

A Quaker preacher first came to Hertford in 1655 and meetings were held in private houses until a permanent place of worship was built in 1669. The meeting house opened in 1670 and George Fox visited the building at least three times.

Interior of Quaker Meeting House, Railway Street, Hertford, Hertfordshire © Historic England Archive DP160138
The interior of the Quaker Meeting House in Hertford, Hertfordshire. © Historic England Archive DP160138.

There have been some alterations over the last 350 years but overall it retains much of its original character. From the outside it has the appearance of a pair of houses, but inside is one large meeting room rising to the full-height of the building.

5. Quaker meeting house, Mosedale

On the northern edge of the Cumbrian Mountains, Mosedale meeting house was once the house of Quaker George Pickering.

Exterior of Mosedale meeting house. Image by David Dunford via Enriching the List
Mosedale meeting house. Photo by David Dunford via Enriching the List.

The number of Quakers in the area grew after a visit from George Fox in 1653, and Pickering’s house was converted for worship in 1702.

Interior of Mosedale meeting house, 1960-1980 © Historic England Archive BB77/03462
The interior of Mosedale meeting house, captured 1960-1980. © Historic England Archive BB77/03462.

From the outside, the meeting house still looks like one of the many simple, stone-built, agricultural buildings to be found in the surrounding valleys and fells. Inside, however, it retains its original Elders’ stand and benches, arranged for Quaker worship.

6. Blue Idol Quaker meeting house, Coolham

No-one knows the origins behind the name of Blue Idol, but at its heart is a timber-framed farmhouse dating to about 1580, originally called Little Slatters.

Exterior of Blue Idol Quaker Meeting House, Coolham, West Sussex © Historic England Archive DP160408
Blue Idol Quaker Meeting House, Coolham, West Sussex. © Historic England Archive DP160408.

In the 1690s, a group of Quakers arranged to buy the farmhouse and convert it into a permanent meeting house. Among them was William Penn, known as the founder of the American colony, the Province of Pennsylvania, who became a Quaker in 1667.

A plaque commemorating William Penn at the Blue Idol Quaker Meeting House, Coolham © Historic England Archive DP160412
A plaque commemorating William Penn at the Blue Idol Quaker Meeting House, Coolham. © Historic England Archive DP160412.

Inside, the meeting house still features its original Elders’ stand and gallery.

7. Quaker meeting house, Blackheath, London

The Blackheath meeting house has had several locations in Woolwich and Deptford over the years, but in 1972 a new concrete building was designed by Trevor Dannatt, a notable figure in post-war modernist design.

Exterior of Quaker Meeting House, Lawn Terrace, Blackheath, London © Historic England Archive DP180137
Quaker Meeting House, Lawn Terrace, Blackheath, London. © Historic England Archive DP180137.

Upon completion, the meeting house was described as a ‘modern building to fit in with the forward-looking community around it.’ It received a Civic Trust Award in 1973 and a commendation by the Concrete Society in 1974.

Interior of Quaker Meeting House, Lawn Terrace, Blackheath, London © Historic England Archive DP180132
The interior of the Quaker Meeting House in Blackheath, London. © Historic England Archive DP180132.

The meeting room is designed as a calm space with a soft aesthetic – white plastered walls and a ceiling lined with warm redwood – contrasting with the rest of the building which uses bare brick, concrete and quarry tile.

8. Kingston Quaker Centre, Kingston upon Thames

Kingston Quaker Centre is a multi-purpose building designed by John Langley of Tectus Architecture.

Kingston Quaker Centre. Image © John Hall via Flickr
The interior of the Kingston Quaker Centre. Photo © John Hall via Flickr.

Making extensive use of natural light and surrounded by a garden, the meeting house reflects the Quaker interest in sustainability and climate change.

The house was a joint winner of the ACE/RIBA award for religious architecture in 2015.

9. Quaker meeting house, Alston

Alston meeting house was built in 1732, in an area well-known for its traditional economy of livestock farming and lead mining.

Exterior of Quaker Meeting House, Front Street, Alston, Cumbria Historic England Archive DP154318
Quaker Meeting House, Front Street, Alston, Cumbria. © Historic England Archive DP154318.

The house was once connected to the local London Lead Company, a Quaker-run organisation which reflected Quaker values of improving worker’s living conditions and providing education.

From 1902, the house became the headquarters of the local Toc-H branch, a social and welfare organisation that emerged from the First World War soldiers’ club Talbot House, in Poperinghe, Belgium. It reopened as a Quaker meeting house in 1972.

10. Quaker meeting house, North Walsham

North Walsham meeting house has hardly changed since it was built in 1772.

Exterior of Quaker Meeting House, North Walsham. Image by Henry Bolton via Geograph
Quaker Meeting House, North Walsham. Photo by Henry Bolton via Geograph.

A substantially intact Georgian building, much of its traditional interior survives and is typical of the way that Quaker meeting houses were built in simple vernacular styles.

Out-of-town in a secluded location, there is an earlier walled Quaker burial ground nearby as well as dwellings which were part of a small Quaker settlement.

The Quaker Meeting Houses Heritage Project
Since 2015, we’ve been working with the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) on the jointly-funded Quaker Meeting Houses Heritage Project.

Further reading:

7 comments on “An Introduction to Quaker Meeting Houses

  1. Pamela King

    I have been told that some of my family were quakers many years ago, they lived in and around Rye, Sussex. Can anyone advise how i can find out please, so far had no luck with research.
    Pam King

  2. Hello Pamela. A year ago I didn’t know I had any Quaker ancestry. I started a family history course at my local library where you can access Ancestry and Find My Past. Maybe your library can help too. I have traced Quaker ancestors back to 1656 in Yorkshire. The good thing about the Quakers is that they were punctilious about record keeping, so going back is relatively easy. I am more than happy to be of further help and I hope you have the same genealogical luck as I did.
    Anne

    • Pamela King

      Thank you Anne, I am so sorry for delay in replying but I did miss your comment and only found it when going through a deletion process. I will try my library but I do not live in Sussex where they lived I live in the Midlands so not sure they will have access to this information, but will give it a try.

      Pam King

  3. Richard Pickvance

    A few errors in the piece on Blackheath QMH. There were Quaker Meetings in Woolwich and Deptford, but the Lawn Terrace location is the first and only one for a Blackheath Meeting House. 1972 was the date when the QMH was completed: it was designed in the late 1960s. The quotation ‘a modern building to fit in with the forward-looking community around it’ comes from an appeal flyer issued in 1968.
    The Historic England listing citation for Blackheath QMH also contains various errors, which have been reported to HE. The building’s Wikipedia page is currently correct.

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