On the evening of 14 November 1940, over 500 bombers from the Luftwaffe (the German air force) targeted Coventry in the highly industrialised West Midlands.
There had been a number of previous smaller raids on the city during the Battle of Britain (July-October 1940), when the Germans had unsuccessfully attempted to devastate Britain’s airfields, factories and infrastructure as a precursor to a potential invasion.
A first wave of high explosive bombs crippled Coventry’s gas, water and electricity supplies; later waves dropped a combination of high explosive and incendiary bombs, swiftly igniting intense fires.
In the 12 hours of the raids, 568 people were killed and over 4,000 homes destroyed.
Around a third of the city’s factories were damaged or destroyed, including those making munitions and aircraft. Most of the medieval city centre was left in ruins.
Coventry Cathedral, dating from the 14th century, suffered a firestorm leaving it a virtual shell with only the tower and its spire still standing.
This pinnacle was rescued from the rubble and served as a monument to the visit of George VI, the present Queen’s father. The inscription reads: ‘King George VI stood here 16 November 1940 viewing the ruins.’
The decision to rebuild the cathedral was taken the morning after its destruction – not as an act of defiance, but as a symbol of reconciliation and faith in a future world free from conflict.
It was not until 1951 that a competition was launched to find a design for a new cathedral: it was one of the most important architectural commissions of the post-war period.
A radical plan submitted by the young architectural practice Basil Spence & Partners was chosen from 219 entries. It was striking for its vision of preserving the ruined shell of the ancient cathedral as an integral part of the overall modern design.
In the days after the bombing two charred roof beams that had fallen in the shape of a cross were discovered by the cathedral stone mason. They were lashed together and put where the ruined altar stood. A replica replaced the original in 1964. Three surviving medieval roof nails were also formed into a cross, the Cross of Nails, now located at the centre of the altar cross in the new cathedral.
The dramatically modern cathedral, which caused public controversy at the time, was built at right-angles to the ruins of the old and shared the same unifying red sandstone exterior.
The foundation stone was laid by the Queen on 23 March 1956 and the cathedral took six years to complete: it was consecrated in her presence on 25 May 1962. The opening ceremony saw the first performance of Benjamin Britten’s ‘War Requiem’, composed specially for the occasion.
From outset the architect Basil Spence commissioned some of the finest artists of the period to create striking designs and bold decorative detail for the interior. Spence later was knighted in 1960 for his work on the cathedral.
Graham Sutherland’s tapestry was one of the biggest in the world at nearly 80 foot high. It was woven in France in one piece over two years on a huge 500 year old loom.
Jacob Epstein’s monumental bronze to the right of the porch depicts the Archangel St Michael vanquishing the devil Lucifer.
The artist John Piper was commissioned to design the Baptistry windows. He worked with the master of stained glass Patrick Reyntiens, who hand-painted the glowing abstract panels. The blaze of light in the centre represents the light of creation.
The mosaic depicts the Angel of Agony by Stephen Sykes, seen through the wrought iron Crown of Thorns designed by Basil Spence.
After the destruction of the cathedral, the idea of this chapel was conceived of by the then Provost, Richard Howard. He wanted an ecumenical space where people of all faiths could come together to pray for peace. That vision of a reconciled and reconciling cathedral open to all holds true today.
The glass was engraved with 66 stylised angels and saints by the artist, John Hutton. The artists’ model and later Hutton’s wife, Marigold Dodson, draped in a silk bedspread, posed for the figures. Hutton created the engravings using a hand-made tool fixed with different grinding wheels and driven by an old washing-machine motor. It took him 10 years to complete the project.
Before the Second World War, the medieval stained glass from the cathedral was removed and sent for safety in 30 wooden crates to the cellars of a rectory near Stratford-on-Avon.
The crates remained undisturbed until 1957 when the property was sold and the stained glass returned to what was a very different cathedral. Basil Spence was keen to incorporate some of the hand-painted glass within his new design. Experts spent decades, sifting through the thousands of pieces, (some by the renowned medieval master glazier John Thornton) choosing key fragments for display within the new cathedral.
These ruins are preserved as a memorial and are hallowed ground. They provide a contemplative garden space, as well as the backdrop for open air events.
Written by Nicky Hughes.
In November 2019, Historic England held Where Light Falls, a spectacular, free light and sound installation that told the story of the Cathedral, the city and its people.
- Browse images of Coventry Cathedral from the John Laing Photographic Collection
- Coventry Cathedral
- England’s Historic Cities under Attack: the Baedeker Raids, 1942
Header image: the ruins of Coventry’s St Michael’s medieval cathedral to the left – bombed in the Second World War and preserved as a garden of remembrance – adjoining Sir Basil Spence’s post-war cathedral, built 1956-62 and listed Grade I © Historic England/DP164703.
Brings back memories of a poignant outdoor performance (before heavy rain necessitated continuation inside 😯) in the 90s, attended with my parents, who were over from Germany on one of their regular visits but are no longer with us.
We visited Coventry five years ago. The whole experience was wonderful. Firstly we talked with two community officers who told us about the city then we had a wonderful guide at the Cathedral. All together it had a lasting impact.
In my year-in-practice as an architectural student, I worked for the late Michael Clews who was Cathedral Architect.
Reading a transcript of Provost Howard’s lantern lecture recounting how he and an assistant dashed about the roof in an attempt to extinguish the incendiary bombs was a memorable task.
The fact that the adjacent Holy Trinity church still stands today is due to it having a larger fire watch team.
A second cross made of nails from the roof of Coventry Cathedral stands in the Frauenkirche, Dresden, as witness to the attrocities of war.
I was given tickets for Britten’s War Requiem, and was present at the consecration, with my husband .
Also present, Fischer Diskau, Vishnevskya, Bronowski, Earl of Harewood. And many others.
My husband was the only member of his family to survive the war!
This experience seemed to sum up all the thoughts of a peaceful future which seemed possible at that time?
I never knew why we were given those tickets, but they left a memory of a very particular time, when we were full of hope!
Visited on a coach trip from my local church in Liverpool in the summer of 1962. A cynical 13 year old – I was mildly impressed. Went to University in Coventry in 1969 – quite by chance. Running late to lectures through the cathedral porch, – worked nearby for 40 years. Only now aged 70 and living in quiet retirement do I see the truly remarkable work of it. ‘Peace’ – as we wish each other every Sunday.
A very interesting story, will make a visit
I queued for 4 hours as a young teenager to see the new cathedral and it set me off on a path to become an architect.
So sorry not to have seen the cathedral on my visits back to the “old country.” Am probably too old for another trip now, so grateful for this post about the community response to the violence of WWII. The new cathedral is so beautiful. Thank you for sharing.
Thank you for sending this to me. I was born 30.3.1939 a war baby but I still remember the sound of doodlebugs in the blitz of London. Every time I visit Coventry I go to the old cathedral there and remember the war. About 1960 I visited my German girlfriend Renate living near Kaiser Wilhelm Gedackeniche ? in Berlin. Graham Block(Guildford)
My father and I came on a coach trip from Sheffield to see the new cathedral, about Easter 1963. He was a builder and was deeply impressed. I have seen several copies of the cross of nails at places of reconciliation such as in Northern Ireland and Holland. I visited the Cathedral again 4 years later and was impressed by the atmosphere of prayer, just as in the medieval cathedrals. A lady told me they had a rota of people praying in the cathedral ever since it had been opened.
WONDERFUL MEMORIES OF MY STAY IN COVENTRY WORKING IN COVENTRY THEATRE CHRISTMAS PANTOMIME “PUSS IN BOOTS’ ” WITH SID JAMES AND FRANKIE HOWARD..DURING THIS TIME I HAD THE HONOUR OF BEING ONE IF NOT THE FIRST TO BE CONFIRMED IN THE NEW CATHEDRAL IN 1963.IT WAS SUCH AN EXCITING AND SPECIAL OCCASIONS WITH THE BISHOP TAKING THE SERVICE..HAPPY DAYS!!
My parents took me to England in 1956 when I was but eleven. .One of the places we visited was Coventry Cathedral. It had a lasting impression on me,especially the charred beams and the “Father Forgive” put there. I read the story of the brave effort made to save the church during the nighttime raid. All to no avail. So sad. What a beautiful job has been done with the new cathedral.