Pass the popcorn: a brief introduction to cinemas

Film was first shown in Britain in 1896 in temporary fairground booths and converted shops – so-called ‘penny gaffs’ or theatre ‘turns’.

What followed was an endless love affair between the English and the moving image. Here we take a quick look at how our love for film inspired the construction of many glamorous and decorative cinemas, a number of which are protected by listing.

bb87_02768.tif
Projection box, Odeon Cinema Guildford 1930 – 1939 © Historic England Archive bb87_02768

The 1909 Cinematograph Act was the first legislation in the UK to regulate the film industry. Film reels were made from a highly flammable material, creating a significant safety hazard that had resulted in a number of fatal fires. The act specified a strict building code and almost overnight a new building type emerged.

Hyde Park Picture House
Hyde Park Picture House, Leeds. Built 1914, listed Grade II © Historic England DP174202

Some cinemas were newly built, but many were conversions of existing premises such as shops, community halls, corn exchanges, churches, roller-skating rinks, theatres and playhouses.

You can spot a purpose-built early cinema by the high, quite decorative front with an arched entrance way leading to a small foyer. The auditorium would be a long narrow hall, perhaps with a balcony. A good example is the Empire Cinema Great Yarmouth (1911), Grade II listed.

The Empire Cinema, Marine Parade, Great Yarmouth c Historic England DP057197
The Empire Cinema, Marine Parade, Great Yarmouth © Historic England DP057197

‘One gentleman recalls the distinct smell of perfume that consumed the cinema in an attempt to disguise the smell of tobacco and stink of the general public, who often only bathed once a week.  As the joke went, ‘Ladies and Gentlemen, bugs and fleas, take your seats at the cinema please!”’

via Norfolk at the Pictures

Odeon Cinema, Scarborough, North Yorkshire c Historic England BB87_03388
Odeon Cinema, Scarborough, North Yorkshire. Grade II listed © Historic England BB87_03388

The late 1920s saw an influx of large cinema chains, helped by the Cinematograph Act of 1927 which, designed to reinvigorate the declining British Film Industry, required British cinemas to show a quota of British films. Household names included the Gaumont, ABC (Associated British Cinemas), Granada, Essoldo, and Odeon.

The first Odeon was built by Oscar Deutsch in Perry Bar, Birmingham, in 1930, and the chain pioneered a modern, streamlined style.

bb87_02695.tif
Window disaply at Forum Cinema, Camden © Historic England Archive BB87_02695

Close to 1,500 new cinemas were built from 1920 to1940. This was an age of mass entertainment and avid film-viewing, in which the moving image became central to popular culture, and the new cinemas displayed an architecture of glamour and escapism or modernity.

Dreamland Amusement Park, Margate. 1994.
Dreamland Cinema Margate. 1994.  Grade II* listed © Historic England OP13149

In Kent, Margate’s Dreamland (1935, by Leathart and Granger, listed Grade II*) fronted an entertainment complex with a modernist, continental-influenced cinema in brick, with an eye-catching fin tower.

bb87_02905.tif
Granada Cinema, Wandsworth 1930-39 Grade I listed © Historic England BB87_02905

Internal decoration too could be very special, as in the Gothic fantasy of the Granada, Tooting, in the London Borough of Wandsworth (1931; listed Grade I with an interior by Theodore Komisarjevsky) is still considered to be one of the most spectacular cinemas in Britain.

bb87_03830.tif
Northwick Cinema, Worcester 1930-1939  Grade II listed © Historic England Archive BB87_03830

Fewer cinemas were built after 1945, and most were built as part of office developments as non-flammable film made it possible to combine cinema with other uses, usually by building a cinema in the basement.

Playbox, Odeon Cinema Harringy London c Historic England BB87_03310
Playbox, Odeon Cinema Harringy London © Historic England BB87_03310

100 Places logoHave you been listening?

Our latest podcast episodes explore the top 10 places for Sport and Leisure in England, as nominated by you. Presenter Emma Barnett explores the home of the oldest tennis tournament in the world, a very royal finish line and a strictly spectacular ballroom

Listen to the podcast on iTunes or Soundcloud

 

Further Reading

2 responses to Pass the popcorn: a brief introduction to cinemas

  1. Interesting article-however, the Granada Cinema is in Tooting, not Wandsworth. It is still the only Grade 1 listed Cinema in Britain. Well worth a visit.

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s

Pingbacks & Trackbacks