Before 1967, homosexuality was illegal and loving someone of the same sex was a criminal offence.
The privacy of the home provided safety and security for many LGBTQ people when same-sex intimacy was condemned by society.
Here we take a look at five queer artists’ homes that have become landmarks in LGBTQ history.
1. The Cabin, Bucks Mills, Devon
Once a fisherman’s store, this mid-19th century cabin became the studio retreat of artists Judith Ackland and Mary Stella Edwards in 1924.
The women met as students in London and fell in love. Together they travelled the country, painting and selling their work. They lived and worked in the cliff edge summer house for sustained periods over 50 years until Judith’s death in 1971. Mary Stella closed the Cabin and did not return.
It has been left unchanged in the care of the National Trust and is still used as an artist residence.
2. Chantry House, West Sussex
Artist Hannah Gluckstein adopted the name Gluck in 1918 and began to dress in traditionally masculine clothes.
“Please return in good condition to Gluck, no prefix, suffix or quotes.”Hannah Gluckstein, known as Gluck, on the back of publicity prints of their paintings.
Gender subversion, non-conformity and queer sexualities played an important role in Gluck’s art. One of their most famous paintings, Medallion (YouWe) (1937), a dual portrait with their love, socialite Nesta Obermer, later became the cover image for Radclyffe Hall’s novel The Well of Loneliness (1928), about a lesbian relationship.
After Nesta broke off their relationship in 1944, Gluck began a relationship with Edith Shackleton Heald, the first female reporter in the House of Lords. They lived together in Heald’s home of Chantry House in Sussex until her death in 1978.
3. Priest’s House, Kent
Successful theatre producer, director and costumier, Edith (Edy) Craig, lived at Priest’s House with her female partners – writer and translator Chris St John (Christabel Marshall) from 1899, with artist Tony (Clare) Atwood joining in 1916.
They lived together for the rest of their lives and were visited by queer artists and writers including Virginia Woolf and Radclyffe Hall.
Their timber-framed house is in the grounds of Smallhythe Place, home to Edy’s mother Victorian actress Ellen Terry.
When Ellen died in 1928, Edy transformed the house into a memorial museum to her mother’s life. She converted the 17th century thatched barn into a theatre and held an annual drama festival from 1929, attracting luminaries of the theatre world including queer actor John Gielgud.
4. Ham Spray House, Wiltshire
Artist Dora Carrington and the writers Ralph Partridge and Lytton Strachey made Ham Spray House their home from 1924.
The ménage a trois was associated with ‘The Bloomsbury Set’ of artists and intellectuals, who had open relationships, often with same-sex partners.
Strachey wrote his books Elizabeth and Essex (1928), Portraits in Miniature (1931) and Characters and Commentaries (1933) in the first-floor library of the house.
The library was designed by Carrington featuring tiles with Strachey’s monogram and a false bookcase with humorously titled book spines. Strachey died in 1932, and grief-stricken Carrington died of suicide shortly after.
5. Sissinghurst Castle, Kent
Purchased in 1930, the poet and novelist Vita Sackville-West lived at Sissinghurst with her husband Harold Nicolson. They both had numerous same-sex affairs throughout their happy and unconventional married life.
The most well-known of Vita’s love affairs was that with the novelist Virginia Woolf. Woolf is said to have modelled her very successful book Orlando (1928) and its gender-shifting hero on Vita.
Both Vita and Harold were discreet about their same-sex affairs. Their home at Sissinghurst allowed them to share a happy, queer marriage.
In 2017 we listed two places and relisted 14 places to mark the 50th anniversary of the Sexual Offences Act which partially decriminalised homosexuality. The human stories entwined in these places have been added to their List entries, captured for future generations.