In November 2016, Historic England supported the BBC ‘Black and British’ season with a series of new listings that celebrate Black British history.
In this (by no means exhaustive) list we look at some of the most important buildings and places in the history of music by artists of black origin.
Greenwich Palace – Tudor Music
Coming to London at the beginning of the 16th Century, the trumpeter John Blanke is one of the earliest recorded black people to have lived in Britain. He arrived with Catherine of Aragon and records show payments to him from the Treasurer of the Chamber in 1507 (by Henry VII) and then 1509 (by Henry VIII). Blanke is thought to be portrayed in the 1511 Westminster Tournament Roll.
It is likely that he performed at Greenwich Palace (today the Old Royal Naval College), and this year David Olusoga unveiled a plaque at the site honouring Blanke.
The Shim Sham Club – Jazz
Opening just before the Second World War, the Shim Sham Club was located at 37 Wardour Street in Soho (now an O’Neills) and was presented as a members club, to avoid alcohol restrictions. A haven for bohemians and outsiders, it welcomed artists, models, writers and musicians, as well as queer, black and Jewish Londoners. Garland Wilson, an African American jazz pianist who came to England in the 1930s, regularly performed at the club – notably on its opening night in 1935.
Tilbury Docks – Calypso
Located 25 miles east of central London, the Port of Tilbury is the city’s primary dock. Until the 1960s it served passengers as well as cargo and in 1948, 492 Caribbeans arrived aboard the Empire Windrush seeking a new life – including a number of calypso musicians: Lord Kitchener, Lord Woodbine and Lord Beginner, shown on their arrival in this video from 0.48 seconds.
23-25 Brook Street, W1 – Rock
Having spent several years struggling to get his career off the ground in his native America, Jimi Hendrix arrived in England in 1966. His talent was soon noticed and he earned rapturous praise from musicians like Paul McCartney and Eric Clapton. In 1968 he moved into a flat with his girlfriend at 23 Brook Street, W1. Though Hendrix only lived there briefly, it is his only recognised residence in the world.
In 1997 English Heritage commemorated Hendrix with a blue plaque.
Colston Hall, Bristol – Trip Hop
A Grade II Listed building in the centre of Bristol, Colston Hall has played host to a range of performers since it opened at the end of the 19th century. However, the hall, alongside schools and a number of other civic buildings in the city, takes its name from Edward Colston, who made his vast personal wealth from the slave trade
The name remains a source of contention: trip hop pioneers Massive Attack, arguably Bristol’s most famous musical sons, have refused to play at the venue until the name is changed.
Notting Hill Carnival is England’s biggest Caribbean carnival, but it wasn’t the first.
In 1967 a young student named Arthur France arrived in Leeds from the island of Nevis. To combat his ‘crippling homesickness’, France set about organising a street parade to lift the spirits of his fellow migrants. Static, indoor events had taken place in London, but this was the first time that a West Indian Parade, organised by Caribbeans and consisting of predominantly black people had taken place in England. The now annual parade formerly began in Potternewton Park, Chapeltown, and ended at Leeds Town Hall (the route now starts and ends in Potternewton park).
Hoxton Square – Jungle and Drum & Bass
Long before Hoxton underwent massive gentrification it was home to Blue Note – a pioneering club that opened in 1993. It was here that Kemi Olusanya, Clifford Joseph Price and Jayne Conneely launched one of London’s most important club nights.
Better known as Kemistry, Goldie and Storm, the trio launched the record label and night Metalheadz in 1995 where they performed alongside DJs like Fabio and Grooverider, Doc Scott and Peshay. The night swiftly became legendary, attracting audiences from around the world and celebrity guests like Bjork, David Bowie and Lauryn Hill. Beyond being a site of importance to black British music, Metalheadz at Blue Note is an important landmark in the often ignored history of women in dance music.
Ingram House, London – Grime, Garage and UK Funky
In the 1960s, the lack of genre diversity on the radio led to the emergence of Pirate Radio, initially to cater to pop and rock fans. In the following decades new stations sprung up across the UK, broadcasting out of bedrooms, kitchens and warehouses, providing a vital lifeline for the black music.
Launched over Carnival weekend in 1995 on the 18th floor of Ingram House in Bow, Rinse FM was pivotal to the growth of several genres, including Garage, Grime and UK Funky. In 2005 one of the founders DJ Slimzee was caught on the roof of a block in Shadwell setting up a new rig: he received an ASBO banning him from every roof in Tower Hamlets, ending his career with Rinse. However, the team persisted and in 2010 they were finally granted a community FM licence.
Written by Charlotte Goodhart
- Black and British: iconic images of our music stars from the BBC archive
- See how we supported the BBC Black & British Season