Libraries are ingrained into the blueprints of cities worldwide. As well as their obvious educational importance, they play a substantial role culturally and historically.
England is home to some of the greatest examples of library architecture in the world: here are eight of England’s most magnificent libraries.
The John Rylands Library was built from 1890-99 to designs by Basil Champneys for Enriqueta Augustina Rylands in memory of her husband, in a Gothic style in red sandstone. Built to house the theological library of John Rylands (a leading textile manufacturer and philanthropist), subsequently other collections were added over time and today it is a part of the University of Manchester.
This branch library was designed by Harry Faulkner Brown of Williamson, Faulkner, Brown and Partners. Its beautiful ‘saw tooth design’ was built specifically to enable light to expose the bookcases. Awarded the RIBA Bronze Medal in 1965, the library is Grade II Listed and is now run by volunteers.
This Edwardian public library was funded by a private endowment from successful industrialist and art enthusiast John Champney. Designed in the Jacobethan style, it was built in stages: the core block in 1906 was designed by John Cash in Jacobean-revival style and his son Herbert added a gallery extension and reference library in 1928.
Designed by Henry Fedeski and built by George Wimpey and Co., Lillington Library opened in July 1960 and is a good example of the first wave of post-war branch libraries.
Characterised by its mixture of brick, concrete and glass, the library is strongly representative of the exuberant Festival of Britain style, of which the Royal Festival Hall is probably the best known example.
Dulwich Library was designed by Charles Barry and Son in the Elizabethan Revival style and erected 1896-7. It’s a Passmore Edwards Library – a reference to John Passmore Edwards, the Victorian philanthropist who funded a number of libraries, drinking fountains, schools and other civic needs.
The architect Charles Barry Junior was the eldest son of Sir Charles Barry the co-architect of the Houses of Parliament. Amongst other commissions he designed the Great Eastern Hotel fronting Liverpool Street Station, the extension to Burlington House in Piccadilly and the south wing of the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children. The original single-storey north-west wing which was damaged during World War II was replaced around 1950.
The Bodleian Library is one of the oldest libraries in Europe and one of the largest in Britain: home to over 12 million items. It’s actually a collection of five buildings, spanning 500 years.
The oldest building is the Duke Humfreys Library, which opened in the 15th Century and was absorbed into the Bodleian by its founder, Thomas Bodley, in the 16th and 17th Centuries.
Designed by Silvanus Trevail and Henry White, Penzance was the first art school to be established west of Bristol, and was the centre of art teaching and exhibition in Cornwall from the late 19th Century.
Regular classes took place at the school during the twentieth century, and visiting lecturers included such notable figures as Stanhope Forbes, Lamorna Birch, Thomas Cooper Gotch, Dod Procter, Peter Lanyon, Barbara Hepworth and Graham Sutherland.
Parts of the building have been adapted to serve changing needs and uses, but the level of survival of the principal spaces of the art school is very good.
Hove Public Library was built in 1907 by Architects Percy Robinson and W. Alban Jones in the Wrenaissance style. It was originally topped with a cupola, which was removed in 1967. The construction of this library was made possible by a donation from Andrew Carnegie (another leading civic philanthropist, like Passmore Edwards) in 1903 and cost around £13,500.
Written by Tyreek Hudson, Listing and Content Intern